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Reference Websites by Geological Time Period

| Precambrian | Palaeozoic | Mesozoic | Cenozoic-Tertiary | Cenozoic-Quaternary |


The Hadean Period

For more on the information of the solar system try:

More about radiometric dating is on:

For information on Meteorite craters:

Find more information on the origin of life:

The Archaean Period

Here you can read about Stanley Miller's experiment:

Find out more about stromatolites: Also look on:

Find here information about prokaryotes and eukaryotes:

Information about early life is on:

The Proterozoic Era

On this site you will be able to find pictures and information about green and red algae and good information about Proterozoic life

Some good information about Vendian animals:

More information about the Vendian which also called the 'Ediacaran': .



The Cambrian Period

More about the Burgess Shale on the Smithsonian's website: And more on:

Information about the increase in oxygen that began around 2000 million years ago

This website shows some good photos of Cambrian fossils and good background information:

Fossils indicate that the marine ancestors of New Zealand's ancient land dwelling caterpillar-like Peripatus were alive at that time:

The Ordovician Period

More about the evolution of plants on:

The Ordovician is best known for the presence of its diverse marine invertebrates, including graptolites:, trilobites:, brachiopods:, and the conodonts (early vertebrates):

Information about Ostracoderms, the earliest jawless fish, dating back around 510 million years:

Read about the evolution of fish on:

Read more about mass extinctions on:

On this website you will be able to find a good selection of Ordovician life forms:

Well defined Ordovician rocks, characterised by Graptolite faunas can be found in the Nelson region and the south west of Fiordland, NZ:

The Silurean Period

Here is an example for one of the simple vascular plants Cooksonia:

Read more about Slimonia:

The Devonian Period

More about one of the first amphibians, Ichthyostega lived during the late Devonian in Greenland on:

The oldest tree known, Archaeopteris:

Read also more about Devonian evolution on:

The Carboniferous Period

Information about one of the greatest evolutionary innovations of the Carboniferous, the amniotic egg can be found on:

Here you will find picture of a Hylonomus skeleton:

Read here about a New Zealand frog that has direct-developing eggs:

Find some great information about the evolution of conifers on:

The Permian Period

Interesting information about the transition from reptile to mammal on:

You can read more about the Permian mass extinction on these websites:



The Triassic Period

This is a good webpage with information about the difference between reptiles and mammals:

A great website about the Triassic:

The Jurassic Period

Read more about dinosaurs on:

Read about a particularly important discovery is Archaeopteryx lithographica:

The Cretaceous Period

Find more information about famous Dinosaurs from the Cretaceous period like T-Rex on:

Some illustrated information on Angiosperms on:

Find out more about the five main mass extinctions on Earth:

Here you can read more about the K-T event:

This site gives an excellent report on New Zealand research into the events of the K-T boundary:


Cenozoic- Tertiary

The Palaeocene Epoch

More info about the Palaeocene mammals on:

More about the Palaeocene climate:

Palaeocene fossils:

Good information about the early primates is on:

The Eocene Epoch

Great info on the evolution of horses on:

Very interesting facts on ungulates:

More about whales on:

A great website with an interactive tutorial about the evolution of whales:

And a worthwhile article on the evolution of whales:

The Oligocene Epoch

Information about hominoids on:

Read about the Oligocene:

The Miocene Epoch

Read more about the changing situation of the seas on the Paleoceanographic website:

Read more about kelp on:

More about the Miocene on:

The Pliocene Epoch

A great article about some new evidence for human evolution:

Some information on the early Hominid Evolution:

And more info on the Australopithecus on:


Cenozoic- Quaternary

The Pleistocene Epoch

More information about glacials:

Great images about Pleistocene Mammals from the Russian Palaeontological Institute are on:

Also on:

More information on the moa

Other websites about human evolution:,,

The Holocene Epoch

More about New Zealand's climate:

Information about Foraminifera for examining past climates:

Interesting facts on climate change

An interesting article about the Little Ice Age is on:

And more about past climate variations of New Zealand:

Also read about the brown teal:

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