This is something originally written for the Talking Teaching blog, following a discussion (on FB - where else?) about social media & student learning.
Some of my readers here and on Sciblogs will probably have realised that I quite like Facebook - not least because it's a good source of gorgeous images and quirky facts that can start me thinking about a new science blog post. Also, it's fun keeping in contact with friends & participating in various discussion groups.
One of those groups was set up by the biological sciences students at my institution, and it's used mainly for sharing biology articles and images, the occasional in-joke :) , and alerting other students to upcoming events that their committee has organised. This particular page sees a bit more student activity than some of our paper-specific moodle pages, so for a while now I've wondered about the potential of a good Facebook page to be more than 'just' a place to hang out and share pictures & stories.
Anyway, recently I had a conversation (on FB, lol) with my friend Kelly Pender and another Academy colleague about this potential. It turns out that they both use FB quite extensively in their teaching lives and gave me a lot of helpful hints - along with a very recent paper on this very subject (Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014).
Kevin Dougherty and Brita Andercheck teach a large (around 200 students) introductory sociology class at Baylor University in the US. Like all those with classes of this size (or larger), they recognised that one of the major issues they face is
the tendency for students to feel like anonymous spectators rather than active, collaborative participants
- that is, there's a real risk that many students will not properly engage with classroom activities, & that their learning will suffer as a result. I've written previously about flipped teaching as an example of a technique to increase student engagement (& performance), but with a range of different learning styles among class members, what works for one student won't necessarily work for another.
So, how do Dougherty & Andercheck use social media to enhance their students' engagement with the subject, and their achievement (as measured against the learning objectives for the paper)?
The larger a class gets, the harder it can be - even with the best will in the world - get everyone actively involved in discussions, debates and group work during class time. Teachers might try & manage this using a Student Learning Management System (SLMS) like Moodle but again, many students don't really engage here either. (Certainly that's been my own experience.)
The authors wondered, what about Facebook? After all,
[s]ocial media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, are part of life for the generation of students now filling college classes
and it's easy to load material and set up discussion threads. (Even a relatively technological illiterate like me can do it!) Why not use it as a more engaging SLMS, one that's more likely to get buy-in from students because it's already familiar to them?
I can just hear the cries of horror that might greet such a proposition. Don't students already spend far too much time on FB and other networking sites? It would just be a distraction. These are valid objections. But with evidence in favour from a developing body of research into such uses of social media, Dougherty & Andercheck set up a study of the impact of a group FB page on students' engagement & performance in their own class.
For anyone interested in doing likewise, their paper in Teaching Sociology has a very useful description of how the class page is set up & administered. (One of my Academy colleagues has similar pages for MOOCs that he is involved in; due to their size, he has some students help with the admin.) It was run in parallel with their 'normal' SLMS, Blackboard, and the latter was where students obtained class handouts & readings. FB was for sharing & discussion; for videos, news stories, & photos; for the 'Question of the Day'.
For students unable to participate or uncomfortable participating in the classroom discussion, we invited them to add their thoughts and reflections to the conversation on Facebook. We used poll-style questions on the Facebook Group as another means to engage students.
Students readily got involved, 'liking' posts, joining discussions, and posting material. Two weeks into the semester, more than half the class had joined the page, and 2/3 were part of it by the end of the paper. To see how all this activity affected learning outcomes, the researchers carried out content analysis of student postings & matched this to performance, and also asked students for feedback via the usual paper appraisals.
The appraisal data showed that half the class visited the FB page on at least a weekly basis, and that the majority were positive about its effect on their experience in the class. While 24% disagreed (ranging from slight to strong disagreement) that it enhanced their experience, Dougherty & Andercheck noted wryly that "it was students who never or rarely used the Facebook Group who disagreed". Students also felt that the page gave them a stronger sense of belonging in the course, and also that it positively influenced their achievement of the learning objectives.
Of course, the final proof of the pudding is in the eating (sorry, channeling cooking blog here!): was this reflected in actual performance? The researchers found that FB group membership showed a positive correlation to total quiz points and total points. It also had "a marginally significant, positive relationship" with both a student's total score for the paper and their score in the final exam, and the number of posts someone made was linked to their quiz score.
What's more, their analysis of the page's content and their students' use of the page clearly shows how involved many class members became in discussion. This is a big point for me: I use Moodle in my own class & it's sometimes a bit sad to see how little real conversation there is about a topic. We might see a question posted, followed by a couple of answers, & then it all dies down again. Would discussions become deeper & more complex in a different, more familiar (&, let's face it, less clunky) medium? I guess there really is only one way to find out. (And I'll be making good use of the very helpful hints provided at the end of this thoughtful, and thought-inspiring, paper!)
K.D.Dougherty & B.Andercheck (2014) Using Facebook to Engage Learners in a Large Introductory Course. Teaching Sociology 42(2): 95-104 DOI: 10.1177/0092055X14521022